VII. The Maps & Mapmakers

Both compilations promised to provide maps. Moore’s Address to the public is interesting here as it promised: Two impressions of a map of the County will be given in the course of the Work; one of them, to accompany Mr Brayley’s Outlines, will be coloured geologically; ground plans of the City of Exeter and the Cathedral will also be given.

When published in bound format Volume I of Moore had a map of THE CITY OF EXETER clearly dated 1835 and engraved by W Schmollinger with a Paternoster Row address and published by R Colliver, Exeter; the second volume had a detailed county map of very high quality also engraved by W Schmollinger, and published by R Colliver, Holloway Street, Exeter but dated 1836. The map of Exeter was Drawn by R Browne. It would appear that Moore and Browne had some sort of contact, possibly only postal, as Moore refers to him when writing about the Rev. Bidlake who resided in Tamerton. “I am indebted for the materials of this article chiefly to Mr R Browne, architect, who ... is a native of Tamerton” (footnote p. 746 Vol. II). However, the footnote on page 766, at the end of a long biography of Joshua Reynolds, refers to Browne as a resident of Topsham.

Fig. 15. Map of Exeter by Schmollinger for Moore.

Maxted has a Richard Colliver (fl. 1828-1848) who was working as both a Bookseller and tea dealer in the period 1828-1835, and as bookseller only from 1836. He was resident at the Holloway Buildings during this time.[1] The dates and address certainly fit but for Colliver to engage a London engraver to execute two such fine maps is commendable. In addition Ian Maxted has inspected the collection at Exeter and established that although Mr W Bennett was distributing the parts issue from his premises in Russell Street Plymouth from at least 1831 it was Colliver whose name appears on the quarterly parts issues 8, 9 and X which are extant. William Bennett was a bookseller, publisher, stationer and bookbinder first at 13, Russell Street, Plymouth (1830) and later at 22, Russell Street (1840-1844) He was also registered at 53, Paternoster Row, London in 1844.[2]

The 1836 map of Devon by Schmollinger is of a similar style to those found in Moule’s English Counties. The frame, typical of Moule’s maps (although not Devon) has columns right and left with two different and very ornate stonework patterns between and has been bound into editions of The History of Devonshire. The county map is unusual in having vignette views of Tavistock Abbey and County Sessions House, neither of which appear on any other maps of Devon. The former view looks a little bit out of place, almost as if a Reference to Hundreds might have been moved to create space for it.[3]

Fig. 16. Map of Devonshire by Schmollinger for Moore.

William Schmollinger seems to have been a specialist map engraver as well as publisher and flourished between 1830 and 1837. Plans of Pompeii for Sir William Gell are known but his main mapping work seems to have been contributing to Thomas Moule’s English Counties[1], being responsible for 25 different map plates. He also produced at least two maps of London in the early 1830s. Worms and Baynton-Williams[2] believe him to be William Francis Schmollinger, born c.1811. He married in London in 1836 Sophia McMurdo. He had premises at 27 Goswell Terrace, Goswell Road about the time he engraved these maps, and later in Aldine Chambers, Paternoster Row. He may well have been the son of the Joseph Schmollinger and Mary Drew who married at St Leonard Shoreditch in 1799[3].

It is interesting that James Bingley is listed as contributing work to Moore’s History. He, too, contributed 18 engraved maps to Moule’s English Counties and for a while Schmollinger and he, together with Francis Roxburgh, seem to have been in partnership circa 1833. Bingley was imprisoned for debt and there was a court case between Schmollinger and Roxburgh. Schmollinger was himself declared bankrupt in May 1856 and died in Camberwell aged 58 (1869).[4] He would have been working for both Moule and Moore at about the same time.

The puzzling aspect remains that in the Address it would appear that 4 maps and plans were offered but only two were forthcoming. The county map “coloured geologically” and the plan of the Cathedral never emerged. The two maps included could have been from another source and tipped in later when the book sections were sent to the binder but they have not been seen included in any other work.

Two specially commissioned maps were included in Devon & Cornwall Illustrated: the county map of Devon has an attractive vignette view of Babicombe Bay signed by Allom and Floyd and is dated 1831; and Cornwall, with an inset of the famous Cheese Wring and signed by B R Davies, is dated 1832. The two maps appeared in issues 29 and 33 respectively and were to be bound as frontispieces to face the title page in the bound version. Usually, the two counties are found bound together but each has its separate title page still dated 1829 for Devon and 1832 for Cornwall but a new joint title page was issued for insertion in 1832. The publishers commissioned the maps from the company of J & C Walker who produced a number of maps of the two counties for various works.[5]

Fig. 17. Map of Devonshire by B R Davies for Fisher.

Allom, as we know from the title was responsible for a good part of the drawings, but nothing is known about Floyd (fl.1832-1859)[1] and he is listed neither by Mackenzie or Worms/Baynton-Williams but we know he also engraved four plates for Moore. He also worked for Fisher, Son & Co., producing engravings of the Rhine scenery for their part work The Rhine, Italy and Greece (c.1841-42). 

Benjamin Rees Davies (c.1799-1872) was a map and writing engraver, cartographer, publisher and printer.[2] His first cartographic work is recorded as early as 1811 and in 1832 he collaborated with J Britton on a map of Tunbridge Wells. John and Charles Walker were among the leading publishing companies for cartographical works at this time. 

The map they produced for this work measures 185 x 235 mm (l x h) with a scale of English Miles (20 = 46 mm) or approximately 1M = 2.3 mm. The title DEVONSHIRE is above the top border centrally. The map includes a vignette view of BABICOMBE BAY. The publisher’s imprint of FISHER, SON & Co. LONDON, 1831. is centrally below the lower border and the engraver’s signature, Drawn & Engraved by J & C. Walker. is below the bottom border to the right. The map was issued with one of the final parts issues and shortly before subscribers would have the complete series bound. Obviously the publishers would bind copies themselves and offer these for sale. Hence the map of Devon appeared in Devon & Cornwall Illustrated – Part No. 29 and the companion map of Cornwall - measured 185 x 235 mm (l x h) at the same scale of English Miles (20 = 46 mm) – in Part No. 33. The title CORNWALL is above the top border centrally. The map included a vignette view of THE CHEESE WRING. The publisher’s imprint of FISHER, SON & Co. LONDON, 1831. is centrally below the lower border and the engraver’s signature, Drawn & Engraved B R Davies. is below the bottom border to the right. 

Both maps make use of unusual vignette scenes. It had been comparatively unusual to include scenes in county maps outside of the title cartouche and only a small number of the 120 map engravers of a Devon county map before Victoria had found space for a view. Setting aside those who included coats of arms (and Drayton’s fairy-like creatures) Read (1743) had included two versions of Edystone Lighthouse (copied by Simpson-Walker 1744), Bowen (1763), Langley-Belch (1817), C & J Greenwood (in 1827 and 1829), Pigot (1829) and Scott-Fullarton (1833) had all included Exeter Cathedral. Dix and Darton portrayed Dartmouth Castle (1816) and Thomas Moule presented Exeter Guildhall in his map by Schmollinger already discussed (1834). The scenes in Moore and Fisher are unique to these maps.

Fig. 18. Map of Cornwall for Fisher signed by B R Davies.


Part VIII: Publication History

Return to Introduction

[i] See This is one of the Exeter Working Papers in Book History compiled by Ian Maxted as An anti-book trade index . A chronological listing of attacks on the written word. An excellent series on all fronts.

[ii] Ibid.

[iii] Batten & Bennett (1996/2008) entry 111. Illustration kindly provided by David Smith of Modbury at All rights reserved.

[iv] Laurence Worms and Ashley Baynton-Williams (2011).[v] Laurence Worms; Some British Mapmakers; Ash Rare Books Catalogue and Price List; 1992.

[vi] Worms and Baynton-Williams (2011).

[vii] See Batten & Bennett(1996/2008) entries 103, 113 and 116.

[viii] He has one print catalogued on the Royal Academy website. Ash Rare Books gallery has his dates as (1802-1887).

[ix] Worms and Baynton-Williams (2011).


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